M. COULTER, Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. CHARLES R. BARNES, Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. J. C. ARTHUR, N. Y. Agric. Exp. Sta., Geneva, N. Y.



sence a ies




Asa Gray (portrait) . j : . Charles R. Barnes. Birthday Congratulations Pollen-spores of Tradescantia Vincues (plats 1)

J. M. Coulter and J. N. Rose.

A new larval Entomophthora (plate m) =. J. @. Arthur. Some Arctic grasses (plate 111) . . F. Lamson Scribner. The Life and Labors of Linnezus. : . A. P. Morgan. Notes on the flora of eastern Virginia. . Lester F. Ward.

Development of the root in Botrychium ternatum (plate rv)

ouglas H. Campbell.

On some recent notes and descriptions of Eriogonex in Pro-

ceedings of the California Academy of Sciences

C. C. Parry.

Botanizing in Texas . Mildews of Indiana

Edward Tuckerman—

J. N. Rose.

I. Biographical Sketch. : . Prof. Goodell. II. Bibliographical Sketch . . . Henry Willey.

Revision of North American Hypericaceze

54 J. Reverchon. 56, 211 60

73 74

John M. Coulter. 78, 106

Origin of the flora of Indiana Harvey Thomson. 88 Scribneria, gen. nov. (plate v) : E. Hackel. 105 A trip to Willoughby Lake, Vt. . : "Walter Deane. 112 Specimens and Te me rma . page Mirtindale J. W. Chickering, C. E. Bos, W. Chapman, Be. Cray J . Davis, C. E.

Smith, Gerald McCarthy.

. 129


How to collect certain plants (Ill.)_. f : : . 135

Cactuses. . : Geo. orga Parasitic fungi : . A. B. Seymour Willows. . é T. S. Beb : E. W. D. Holway Catices:; . i i, H. Bailey, i Marine algve (2 ALB, Herve

rasses . FL. Fresh water alge . Francis Wolle ba ' Thomas Mor ong, - or : ill ; ; Eloise Butler Mosses . E. A. Rau, Clara E. Cummings Nos W. A Farlow Chara Slime, moti A. Rex Lichen F.L. Sargent Bacteria. ; “Willian Trelease Fleshy fungi. : AP. Morgan Yeasts : W. G. Farlow

C. H. "Peck, H. W. Ravenel

The ony Herbarium of Harvard University, a s)

harles R. Barnes. 151 The National Herbarium at oe George Vasey. 153 The genus Asimina . Asa Gray. 161 Revision of North teens species of Nave (plate v1)


Thomas Morong. 16 Gras-es of Yellowstone National Park. I. F. LZ. Seribner and Frank Tweedy. 169 Outline for study of chemical botany . Lillie J. Martin. 178 The flora of our southwestern archipelago. Wm. 8. Lyon. 157, 330 Structure and distribution of the resin-passages of white pine (plate vin) : : tta L. Knowles. 206 Notes on Campanula ee : : Oe W. Barton. 208 Botany at the American Association . ivoee Botanical Club of the American kaeeonias 5 . 224 Entertainment of the Botanists at Buffalo

4 ; ; , 229 Essay toward a revision of Dodecatheon —. .Asa Gray, 231 The Development of the Gymnosporangia of the United States . . W. G. Farlow, 234

The theory of i pee Pia joulaesan diseases. D. E. Salmon, 241 Memoranda of a revision of North American Violets. Asa Gray, 253, 289 Synopsis of North American pines, based on leaf anatomy (plate viz) . John M. Coulter and J. N. Rose. 256, 302 Notes on the mode of pollination of Asclepias (plate vim) rles 1

yertson. 262

Certain a constituents of plants cousiccad in relation

to their morphology and evolution Helen C. DeS. Abbott. 270

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Vv The relative value of cultures in liquid and solid media in the diagnoses of bacteria . . Theobald Smith. 294 Botanical character of the black rot, Physstoapore Bidwellii, Sacc. (plate rx). F. Lamson Seribner, 297 The bulliform or hygroscopic solic of grasses os sedges compared (plate xX) : V. J. Beal. 321 Hierochloa borealis F a Deane. 326 Notes on Care®—VIII ees (plate x1) L. H. Bailey, Jr. 328 BRIEFER ARTICLES— Anemone nudicaulis n. sp... dct Pts : Asa Gray. 17 Dispersion of some tree seeds . . ; ete Js Beal. 17 Anemonella thalictroides : ; : i Asa Gray. 39 Edmond Boissier . i : . epee de A syn 39 Sections of native woot = 4 40 he tumble weed of the west Sit ¥ alee C. E. Bessey. 41 Aspidinm vere Swe. i: euglthiie ani ele T. J. W. airing 63 A cheap camera : : d : ; 4 oo J.R. Lowrie . : i , « ho Porter... 64 Primula Cusickiana , Gray ; C teline dole ds BE oer. ot On me obation of authorities. a , ; . Gen. Bentham. 91 Thalictrum 2 : = « Wm. Tretease. 92 The pen Tulas : see . W. G. Farlow. 93 The gr aa’ of Coulter's Manual . ; ; . F. Lamson bt pia 95 Seas on 2 ; Tasey. 116 On the oka eiiens of species in Cacti hs An aasiea, bee Yarn. M47 Herbarium notes in back num : : i ; . 156 Mounting delicate nan : : : ak Seym . 156 Liqnid fish glue ase ed. eee 157 ree eet of thick specimens cS Trelease C. E. Bessev. 157 Cal ni Obiapoenetes n. *P- cae wd: irae 80 Ara i : . ZL. G. Yates. 181 Vimithkth Dp. oe: eee Tuckerman ead i ne a spaen bols 1 ee Vancouveria . ; : : Z é : . Asa Gray. 182 How to make pockets (ay ) C. R. Barnes, 183 nical d ; E. J. Hill. 183 Collecting fossil plan pened on Ayelet dhortey.. 4A Drying plants out of pee in wet weather 5 : . John Macoun. 185 Herbarium cases (III. C. E. Bessey, Win lease. 186 alis aurea and its allies : . Asa Gray. 188 Development of Reestelize frou Gymmosporangia W. G. Farlow. 189 The Arillus in Asimi Asa Gray. 190 Gymnosporangium macropus on Pyras coronaria . B.D. Halsted. 190 Notes on Arisema triphyllum : omas Meehan, 217 Dr. sake A 8 Seite to the Cerestes) club . ; . .Asa Gray. 245 Orange scab F. Lamson Scribner. 246 Expu wisi ee ey ‘seeds 0 f Sporobolus cryptandras (IL) . Wd. Beal. 247 The biology of timber trees with special relate to the requirements . B. E. Fernow. 247 An aerate ‘Peronospora plate vit. op ae BEY aS i 272 John Goldie, gardener and bo Va. 2 6 ale hee mmole . . °... « « (Jehu Deindl Sk 24



Testa of the seeds of Sdyctnagnatg (plate vim.) . . Chas. U. Stockbarger. 274 Some notes on Hyp hn M. Coulter. 275 How the hamble ei parece nectar from Physostegia Virginiana. J. Schneck. 276 Home-made bacteria (Il1.) T. J. Burrill. 276 A case in teratolo A. Crozier. 3 Puccinia Malvacearum in Massachus G. Farl 09 Making ings with a dissecting 2 a (Il 1.) F. L. Scribner. 310 Plan for emaaads work in chemical botany (IIl.) “Lillie J. Martin. 311 Some addi a to the sylva of North pene a y Chas. S. Sargent. 313 New Gra Poe George Pon 337 Ambrosia s bidentata ak trifida. x i : . Asa Grav. 338 partie nse in Indiana ° ; i : Rose. 338 eorge Martin : : js : : reer fered ad "Rothrock. 338 Pec new Californian plan Volney Rattan, 338 A oe gta ae ment in Naboratory practice Byron D. Halsted. 339 Alaskan p F. H. Knowlton. 340

EDITORIAL 18, 41, 65, 97, 118, 157, 191, 248, 279, 315, 340 NICAL GAZETTE.— Plant teudshowa and botany.—Treatment of -

siccate.—Citation of authorities. Ripene topacage for botanical research.— Lite ture of ice: och “a ed.—The sketches of Dr. Asa Gray.—The Ga the port

“amepe ns ae and wor' .-A botanical jection of ‘hie Ake®: "S—Re

Sistinent stations.— Physiological botany in Am

contributions.— Botanical activity.— Recognition of reat an wor ak.

OPEN nee 20, 43, 67, 98, 120, 192, 250, 281, 316, 341

Seeds wanted. Asa Gray The dispensaries 6 ee A Phallu M. B. Flint

The Agriceliatel department.

Some yeh ; Botany at Harv Reverchon’s texan oy

Has ies ad Franklin Collins W. G. Farlow

FE. Davenport tlue for = herbarium, W. W. Bailey rofun Bail:

Quisqu Nasturtium lecuutre pt v2 M Bailey, ge . double Z os. F. James \ rrangeme of herbarium. Ww. J. Beal Tamarack “ipa Thomson li

C I I I begins L é " Fertilization of Cinpaaeln:


Pe sepervins ght * ec Coulter jiquid glue . . H. Oyster Concerning 1. . W. W. Bailey

Arrangement of herbaria Wm. Trelease,

W. W. Bail Ee . H. Knowlton

asic ieoy and a dredge Thos. Morong

n the he ae waa W. Bailey ne

F. Sinteni’s Puerto- Rico ar . Urban

Spores of Pilobolus Ww. J. Beal iola tricolor, var. arvensis. os. P. Hari be aiming substances within scieaal - Brayton ines rs Botanical Club N. J. Colman Second bloom ing of Salix humilis. iver A. Farwell

Orientation of cassia leaflets. W. W. Bailey Eupatorium exinene J. Franklin Collins


CURRENT LITERATURE. . 21, 44, 68, 99, 121, 194, 218, 282, 317, 341 Bausch’s Manipulation with the microscope Fe: ck’s Report of the

botanist Peis e’s "Synopsis ve the inet ages ga n’s Revision of Cana-

dian Raaunculacee.”—Coulter’s Man of Roc a - Moeetata Botan 7

Zopi’s “Zur ee und Biologie io Pilzthiere.”—Gray’s “Sup- plement and Indexes to Synoptical Flora.”—Allen’s English Worthies: ig r eff bs } n he

$ see i r. and Coulter’s ‘“ Hand-book of oa daeeciton,” ary’s Vorlesungen tiber Bacterien.”—Hueppe’s Die Methoc en der Bacterien- a g” and English Fup

sses. —— Watson

i Co) togams, n hysiolog Dra gendorff’s * Plant chet ema Me gy ibe: and Wilson’s “General biology.”— 8 Synopsi of North American Cari sone AND cicero . 22, 47, ae 103, 125, 158, 195, 219, 251, 286, 319, 342


Vou, XI. JANUARY, 1886. No. 1.

Asa Gray.


Asa Gray was born in Sauquoit, Paris township, Oneida Co., N. Y., on the 18th of November, 1810. His father had been ap- prenticed to a tanner and currier and must have been still work- ing at the trade when this eldest child was born, for the little house which was his home stood on the tannery premises, and

where his father established a tannery. Here the monotonous oceupation of feeding the bark-mill and driving the old horse that turned it was assigned to the child.

His schooling began at the age of three years, and at six or seven he was a champion speller in the numerous “‘ matches that enlivened the district school. Later, he attended, for a year or two, a select school taught at Sauquoit by the village pastor’s son, and at twelve or thereabouts he was sent to the Clinton Grammar School. Here he stayed two years. His summer va- cations were spent in the hay or corn-fields, for his father had begun to buy up the Jand cleared by the Furnace Co. for char- coal, and to turn his attention to farming. After leaving the Clin- ton school he went, in October, 1825, to the academy at Fairfield, |


Herkimer Co., seven miles north of Little Falls, where he re-



mained a year. His father, who thought an investment in land

better than one in a collegiate education for his son, persuaded him to begin at once the study of medicine. He therefure entered the Medical ‘College of the Western District (located at Fair- field) in the autumn of 1826, whose courses of lectures in chem- istry he had attended the year before while at the academy. The annual sessions were very short.

In the spring and summer of 1827 he studied with Dr. Priest, of Sauquoit, returning to the medical school inautumn. In that winter, 1827-8, he chanced to read the article Botany in Brew- ster’s Edinburgh Encyclopedia. He was greatly interested, bought Eaton’s Manual and read its pages eagerly, longing for spring. He sallied forth early, discovered a plant in bloom, brought it home and found its name in the Manual to be Clay- tonia Virginica, the species Caroliniana to which the plant really belonged, not being distinguished then. In the same spring he became a pupil of Dr. John F. Trowbridge, of Bridgewater, with

zled him, hoping to get assistance from Professor Hadley. He

These botanical studies continued to oceupy his leisure. In the summer of 1829 he collected largely, and in the summer of

In the latter part of May and June he delivered his first course of lectures on botany, Dr. Beck, who had been lecturing

_ previously, having given up the engagement. With the money



thus earned, he made a collecting tour through western New ork, going as far as Buffalo and Niagara Falls. About this time he received an appointment as teacher of chemistry, botany, geology and mineralogy ina private school for boys in Utiea, controlled by a Mr. Bartlett. is first summer vacation was spent ina trip through southern New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, collecting plants, fossils and minerals. At Bethle- hem he spent a day with Bishop Schweinitz. Arriving in New York City, in September, m met Dr. Torrey for the first time, and went with him ona collecting trip to Tom’s River, N.. uring the next summer he was employed by Dr. "Torrey to collect in the pine barrens” of New Jersey, and the regions about Little Egg Harbor, Wading River and Quaker Bridge were scoured by him. On one of his excursions he fell in with an entomologist who proved to be Major Le Conte. Many of the plants which he collected in this locality came into possession 0 reene, and are to be met with in various herbaria labeled “Coll. Greene.” The winter was spent at the Bartlett school, but the spring saw him on another collecting tour along the Black river, During the summer he gave a course 0 ectures on min- eralogy and botany at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., for Professor Hadley.

In the autumn he gota furlough from the Bartlett school in order that he might be Dr. Torrey’s assistant in chemistry in the medical school at New York. During this winter, 1834-5 (?), he lived with Dr. Torrey, and worked all the spare time in his herbarium. At this time he issued the first century of Gra- mine and Cyperacee of North America.” In December, 1834, he read his first paper before the New York Lyceum of Natural History, entitled: “A Monograph of N. Am. Rhynchospore,” and a second one, “A notice of some new, rare or otherwise in- ames plants from the northern and western portions of the

\. Y.” In February or March he returned to his school york ! apes but the summer again found him collecting plants and minerals in northeastern New York.. An account of the min- erals then ee forms his first contribution to the American Journal of Scie

He exp Sotat fs return to New York in the fall, as Dr. Tor- rey’s silient and to this end had resigned his pattie in the Bartlett school. But the autumn brought a letter from Dr. rey saying that the prospects of the school were so poor that he could not afford to employ him. Nevertheless he went to New York, assisted Torrey as he had opportunity, and issued the sec-

d century of Graminez.’


In the summer of 1835 he returned to his father’s home with some books received from Dr. Lehmann, of Hamburg, in ex- si for plants. In this summer he planned and partly

«Elements of Botany,” and when he retarned to New < in ale autumn, arranged for its publication. It appeared in hha ; 1836. In the fall of this year he was appointed curator of the collections of the New York Lyceum of Natural History, and in its new building he made his home. There he wrote two papers:

“Remarks on the structure and affinities of the Ceratophyl- lacexe and Melanthacearum Am. Sept. Revisio,” both of which were published in 1837. As the duties of his curatorship were light, and he had time on his hands, Gray took hold of the work of making a preliminary revision of some of the orders for the Flora of North America, which had been planned by Torrey. He was at this time awaiting the sailing of the exploring expe- dition to the South Pacific, to which he had been appointed botanist in the summer of 1836. The departure was long de- layed. When the Wilkes Expedition” finally sailed it was with a smaller fleet and a reduced staff. In the meantime (1838) Dr. Gray was elected professor of Natural History in the just- organized University of Michigan, and when the staff of the Wilkes expedition was to be diminished he resigned in favor of the assistant botanist, Wm. Rich.

As in the year or more in which he had been working at it, Dr. Gray had sonny oa so much work, Dr. Torrey invited him to become joint author of the Flora of North America. In July, 1838, the first 08 and in October, 1838, the second part of this work was issued. Having gotten so far, it was necessary to consult the American collections in European herbaria. Dr. Gray therefore asked a year’s leave of absence from the Univer- sity of Michigan, that he might go to a urope. This was grant- ed, and a considerable sum of money was placed in his hands by the trustees to be expended in uitehanilig books for the infant University.

He sailed in November, 1838, and went at once to Glasgow, where he was the guest of Dr. W. J. Hooker. In England he consulted various public and private herbaria, and met Arnott, Greville, Graham, Balfour, Boott, Bentham, Robert Brown, Ben-

nett, Lambert, Lindley, Bauer, Ward, Menzies and others. In March, 1839, he crossed to the continent and made an extensive tour of the principal points of interest, keeping in mind always the chief object of his visit. In Paris he met Mirbel, Adrien Jussieu, Brongniart, Decaisne, Spach, A. Richard, Montagu ue,


Gaudichaud, Delessert, Jacques Gay and Boissier ; at Lyons, Se- ringe; at Montpelier, Delile and Dunal; at Vienna, Endlicher and Fenzl; at Munich, Martius and Zuccarini; at Geneva, the De Candolles and Reuter; at Halle, Schlechtendal; at Berlin, Klotzsch, Kunth, Link and Ehrenberg; and at Hamburg, his early correspondent, Lehmann. His letters to Dr. Torrey, which contain a complete account of his journey and doings, are still in existence.

When he returned, late in 1839, he fuund matters at Michi- gan University still in a somewhat chaotic condition, and the trustees were willing to extend his furlough. Accordingly he

Mts. in North Carolina. In January, 1842, he made his first visit to Boston, as the guest of B. D. Greene. While there he made the acquaintance of President Quincy of Harvard College, and in April the Fisher Professorship of Natural History was tendered him. This he accepted, and went to Cambridge in July. This position he holds to the present time.

At Cambridge he devoted his time to the reorganization of the botanic garden and the necessary instruction of students, giv- ing whatever time he could command to continued study of the voluminous and important collections which poured in from all sides, especially from the government surveys of new territory and the assiduous work of individual collectors. The results of this study, of the highest importance, are embodied in various memoirs in different publications. This embarrassment of riches caused the suspension of the Flora of North America.

“Manual” appeared. When the Wilkes Expedition returned, all its material was put into his hands. The report on these col- lections forms a large quarto volume with an atlas of one hund- red royal folio plates. It is not possible, however, to enumerate even the most important of his writings since 1842. They are scattered through the American Journal of Science (of which he

1 Pages 185-400 were issued in the spring of 1842, and the remainder of vol. ii in Feb- Tuary, 1843.


became associate editor in 1853), the Annals of the N. Y.

Lyceum of Natural History, the Memoirs and Proceedings of the American Academy, Hooker’s Journal of Botany, the Jour- nal of the Linnean Society, the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, the North American Review, the Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, the American Naturalist, and the BoTan- ICAL GAZETTE.

Every one is familiar with the text-books, passing through

many editions, which have made his name a household word, and which fully demonstrate that scientific truths can be popularized without being distorted or transformed into errors. Many learned societies of this country and Europe have honored themselves and

im by electing him to membership and to offices of honor. For over fifty years he has been a member of the oldest natural his- tory society in Europe, Academia Ces. Leopoldino-Carolinee Na- ture Curiosorum, from which he received, on the fiftieth anniver- sary of his election, a letter of congratulation.

In 1864, his offer to Harvard University of the immense and’ priceless herbarium which he had accumulated, on condition that a fire-proof building be erected to contain it, was accepted and

the herbarium building put up. The special library attached to the herbarium, consisting of nearly 5,000 volumes, and over 3,000 pamphlets, i is very lar gely due to his generosity.

Since 1873, at which time he retired from the work of instruc-. tion, he has devoted himself rao oy to the preparation of the Synoptical Flora of North America, a work which will represent, when complete, the greater pie of the labor of a lifetime. No

continue until he has finished this masterpiece of scholarly fever ing and critical acumen.

Birthday Congratulations. VERSITY OF Mic SECRETARY’s OFFICE, ANN ARBOR, ie conher 16, 1885. Professor Asa Gray, M. D., LL. D., Cambridge, Mass.: My Dear Sir:

The Senate of the University of Michigan wish, as a body, to be represented among the many friends who will join in pay- ing their respects to you on your approaching seventy-fifth birth- day, and to that et has adopted a congratulatory address, of


which I have the honor, as Secretary of the University Senate, herewith to transmit to you a copy.

At the same time, allow me to recall the privilege I had, more than a quarter of a century ago, of sitting under your instruction, and personally to extend to you my most cordial greetings and congratulations, Very respectfully yours,

W. H. Perrer.

[Congratulatory Address, adopted by the Senate of the University of Michi- gan, November 9, 1885.] - To Professor Asa Gray, M. D., LL. D.:

The Senate of the University of Michigan, mindful of the approach of the seventy-fifth anniversary of your birth, take great pleasure in sending you their greetings on the occasion. We congratulate you that life and health and usefulness have been prolonged till three-quarters of a century have passed over your head Ye entertain the hope that many years of activity yet remain.

With our congratulations we beg to give expression to a lively sentiment of gratitude for services rendered to your chosen science during a long and devoted life. You found the science of botany barred by a hedge of technicalities against the approach of the common student. You have made it the delight and inspiration of the youth of the land. You have subjected the science of botany in its higher departments to lucid and masterly exposition. Many of the comprehensive and critical reviews of the Ameri- can flora have proceeded from your pen. The botanical pages of the American Journal of Science reveal labors sufficient in vol- ume and value to fill and honor a lifetime. And those labors are yours. We hail you as the Nestor of American botany. Few of us there are who do not feel gratefully proud to testify our personal obligations to you for aid and inspiration in our earlier studies ; and none of us fail to appreciate the services and

onor which you have rendered to education and cultivated scholarship. We recall the catholic spirit and breadth of view with which you have treated questions of the interpretation and philosophy of science. We thank you for your acute but just and conservative criticisms and estimates of the doctrine of evo- lution through natural selection, at a time when the doctrine was new and rising into overshadowing importance which filled many honest minds with apprehension. We thank you again for stepping to the defense of fundamental religious truth through the power of the very philosophy which so many thought sent into the world


to destroy religion. But for all that you have done we do not release you from service. We expect you to serve yet many years the cause of education and sacred truth ; and we expect to concede you the highest honors of all for the labors which, we trust, are to adorn the last quarter of your century.

With us the pleasure of these congratulations is quite pecu- liar, since we can hail you as an ex-professor in our University. Your memory readily reverts to the crude infancy of this insti- tution, when your name was chosen to stand first in its list of professors. You recall your actual participation in the labors of our early organizers; and we trust that while your recognized gifts of mind and heart found early employment in a broader field than was offered in Michigan, you have never ceased to en- tertain an interest in the University which you aided to inaugu- rate, and have some personal satisfaction in seeing the slender shoot of 1838 grown to the dimensions of the sturdy oak of 1885.

Accept, Respected Sir, Our Kind Remembrance And Our Cordial Greeting.


CAMBRIDGE, Mass., November 20, 1885. Prof. W. H. Petiee, Secretary of the Senate of the University of Michigan: DEAR Sir:

I can not well say how deeply I was touched and gratified by the Congratulatory Address from the Senate of your University, which I found on my table on the morning of my seventy-fifth birthday, accompanied by your official and friendly note. I was particularly impressed with the breadth of its survey of the la- bors of my life, and with the discriminating reference to some of them which would escape ordinary notice. I beg you to convey to the Senate my grateful acknowledgement of the very kind notice thus taken of my endeavors. recognize, moreover, the fitness of its intimation that I should make the most of the few years that may perhaps remain. I am happy to be able to de- clare that my appetite for work is as yet unabated; also that labor is still attended with joy rather than with the sorrow which the Psalmist contemplates.

I am much pieased that, although a deserter from the ranks before the war began, I am generously recognized as an ex-pro- fessor of the University of Michigan. I suppose that the only direct service I ever rendered it was that of getting together,

when in Europe in 1838-9, the books which were the small


foundation of its library. I well remember the gratified feeling with which, long afterwards, I incidentally heard that the first President of the University, on viewing this slender collection, expressed - opinion that the books had been well selected for the purpos

I have never ceased to be particularly interested in the Uni- versity in which I expected to pass my life. I regret that cir- cumstances have hitherto almost wholly prevented me from per- sonally verifying the impressions which I have received of the amplitude of its appliances for the higher education io of the worthy and efficient use that is made of them indeed, glad that I have lived to see the acorn which was ne platited in my youth develop into the fre ne oak,” vigorous and benef- icent in its youth, and rich in the promise of future years. May its leaf never wither nor its fruitape fail.

Please convey to the Senate my heartiest thanks for such “kind remembrance and cordial greetings,” and believe me to be

Very truly yours, Asa GRAY.

LINES On Dr. Asa Gray’s Seventy-fifth Birthday, November 18, 1885, Oft times it haps the singer’s voice is ect

hen most is needed eloquence of so And oft the heart, though stirred by passions strong,

So is it with myself. - ie wenls }

f On this birthday, when friends a come to praise His virtues and his works. To such as he

There cometh certain immortality ! % GEORGE E. DAVENPORT.

TO A. G. On his Seventy-fifth Birthday.

Just Fate, prolong ea pe Segal -spent ose indefatiga e been as gaily innocent. ret fragrant as his flow November 18, 1885, cae ames RusseLt Lowen.


TO DR. ASA GRAY. November 18th, 1810-1885, Over the earth is reachless, living Pe In flaming marvels that de fy the sig Under the are brilliant inings, but dead; Who toil a g them are igi The orld of g That oves bet iWesitis With sweets and alo ors, flowering turf and height— Comes ¢ ty Bede health and beauty as with bread, ae eas ondly, foot and hand and ben Till we are ated and healed as vail as fed The child, the feeble, and the lusty man, Each finds a mother in the green earth’s ‘plan,

Thou who art wise with searching all her looks, books ;

H es

Into thine own, as bless their native nooks.

Ferns, grasses, ancient trees of might y mould

Whose mazy roots run deep, whose aim is bald,

Their varied forces in thy life have told; For, while int ent on flower or tree or sod, Thy soul’s full eye hath been "Leela to God.


The Pollen-spore of Tradescantia Virginica L. ~~ BY JOHN M. COULTER AND J. N. ROSE. (WITH PLATE I.)

The pollen-spores of Tradescantia Virginica are exception- ally favorable for study. With the simplest appliances, and with few staining reagents, both nuclei can be demonstrated, the de- velopment of the pollen-tube can be watched, and the descent of the nuclei plainly followed. We have not been able to consult Hartig’s paper,’ in which is recorded the original discovery of two nuclei in pollen-spores, among which he includes those of Tradescantia, but the general facts pertaining to the subject are well presented in the works of Strasburger and Sachs, and re- cently summarized in this prt by Goodale. In fact, to Stras- burger is due most of our knowledge of this interesting subject, his latest views being presented in the first part of his Neue Un-

Q Karsten’s Botan. Untersuch. ili. 1866.





pegene t Peekedaad


tersuchungen,’ published in 1884. The only original paper upon the subject published in this country is that of Barnes on Cam- panula Americana.*

All these authors agree in their testimony as to the difficulty of performing this work, and so the demonstration of these recon- dite, but very important, facts has been left entirely to trained investigators. Knowing that the pollen-spores of monocotyle-

ons were much more favorable for study than those of dicotyle- dons, which are certainly too difficult for ordinary observers, and desiring to discover some plant in which these almost inaccessi- ble facts could be seen with comparative ease, the pollen-spores of Tradescantia were selected. ‘The result was so signally suc- cessful, and the methods were so repeatedly tested, that we pre- sent them in this paper.

flowers that had been open for some time, such seeming to re- spond more readily. A power of 250 diameters was constantly used in the work, though the figures of the plate are drawn larger (460 diameters) for the purpose of securing clearness of detail.

e spores are elliptical in optical section, and the extine is so thin and so free from the customary markings of pollen-spores that the details of the interior can be easily seen, In a few min-

? For review see Bot. Gazette, x. 328. ® Bot. Gazette, x. 349.

*Practical Botany, p. 16

* Physiological Botany, p. 430.


utes, at most five or ten, the swelled up sufficiently to show their apalatte and usually e two nuclei became plainly visible. Figures 1 oe show some of ete most common positions. In the os adie e of these nuclei we use that of Strasburger in his Neue Unter suelnnge followed by Barnes in the paper al- ready referred to, exactly the opposite of that of at ee in his Botanisches Pr -acticum, and Sachs in his Text-book.° generative nucleus is a thick, worm-like filament, tapering ms both ends, and always more or less coile ts appearance is exactly that gured by Bernimoulin in his studies’ in the division of the nucleus in the pollen-spore mother-cells of the same spe- cies. The vegetative nucleus is round or oval, of much smaller size, and some of its positions with reference to the generative nucleus are shown in figures 1-4. In some cases, as in figure 4, the generative nucleus is seen almost to encircle the contents of the pollen-spore. In figures 5 and 6 is seen the small cell cut off from the larger ¢ one, containing the generative nucleus, and form- ing the generative cell. The generative nucleus always lies against the intine wall, and its apparent central position in some cases, as in figures 1 and 3, is explained by the fact that it is ly- ing against the upper or ‘lower wall in the figure. The wall which cuts off the generative cell seems to be simply an ectoplas- mic layer of protoplasm,*° and not in any case cellulose. That this layer is often difficult to demonstrate seems to be due both to the fact that the generative nucleus almost entirely fills its cell, and that it is so transparent that only an exceptional position will bring it into view.

Usually within fifteen minutes, or at most half an hour, the pollen-tube can Le seen developing from the larger or vegetative cell. It breaks through the extine at one end of the spore, and the broken edges of the extine can be seen turning back from the emerging tube, figure 7. The generative nucleus retains its po- sition until the pollen-tube is of considerable length, when it

e seen shifting its position towards the side of the pollen- vets from which the tube is ee (figure 8). The stream-

in the nuclei themselves. The fact that the nucleus of the vege- tative (large) cell invariably remains towards the further end of the spore until the generative nucleus passes into the tube, seems

® Second English edit., p. 5

7 Note sur hy Division des Sirus dans le Tradescantia Virginica. Bull. Soe. Roy. bot. Belgique, t. xxiii

8 Sachs’ Text-book, 2d English ed., p. 583.


figure 13. Oy the size of the generative nucleus it was hoped that its division could be demonstrated, but such was not the case. Although in some instances it was suspected, it was

not clear enough to be certain.

After the generative nucleus had entered the tube, the nucleus of the vegetative cell seemed to be carried forwards, and when the former had proceeded some distance down the tube, the latter was swept into it, and followed along at considerable interval (figures 10, 11,12, 13). The vegetative nucleus retained its struc- ture perfectly as far as we were able to trace it in the cultures.

The nuclei in the spores could always be demonstrated after a short immersion in the sugar solution, without the use of a stain- ing fluid, but of course were brought out much more distinctly by it. The nuclei in the pollen-tubes, however, were never seen, with certainty, without staining. e method employed was as follows : drop each of magenta solution and ordinary acetic acid was placed upon a slide, the cover-slip with hanging drop of sugar solution containing the developing pollen-tubes was let down into it, and then, after a moment or two, glycerine was run under.” In this way the nuclei in the tubes receive a dark stain, while the intine is left colorless. Of course there are other and better methods and stains, but our ebject was to use only such reagents as could be obtained at any drug store. Crushing a Stained pollen-spore resulted as shown in figure 17, by which method the shape and structure of the nuclei can easily be studied. It should be said that in many cases both nuclei were not visible, as is represented in figures 14 and 15, although this fact should not be connected with the spores that are exceptional in other re- spects. In many instances a tube began to develop from each end of the pollen-spore, as shown in figure 15, but one was usually Stronger than the other. Quite frequently a pollen-tube devel- oped from one side instead of the end, as represented in figure 14. These two cases would seem to indicate more than one point of emergence, contrary to the general rule among monocotyledons.”

®*Sachs, Text-book, 2d English ed., p.583; Strasburger, Neue Unt hungen, p. 15

Or the magenta and acetic acid were added directly to the culture drop, allowed to

Standa moment, and then inverted and mounted in a drop of glycerine, "Sachs, Text-book, 2d English ed., p. 555.


In rare cases pairs of spores that had not completely separated were seen, but evidently mature, as in each one the two nuclei were demonstrable (figure 16). Sometimes, in strong and rapidly developing tubes which had attained considerable length, the in- tine of the pollen-spore seemed to be pulled away from the extine, or as though it had fallen in or was pushed in by external pres- sure which the more rigid extine resisted, as shown in figures 12 and 13, and finally became knotted up at the tube end of the spore.

In conclusion, then, the results intended to be presented in this paper are: :

1. That in Tradescantia Virginica, by using the simplest appli- ances, and in a very brief time, the two nuclei of the pollen-spore, and their descent into the pollen-tube, can be demonstrated.

2. That in this species the generative nucleus is a large worm- like spindle, and precedes the vegetative nucleus into the pollen- tube.

A New Larval Entomophthora. BY J. C. ARTHUR. (WITH PLATE It.)

The clover-leaf weevil, Phytonomus punctatus Fabr., is a com- paratively new insect in this country. It was first brought to public notice in 1881' as very destructive to clover in Yates county, N. Y. It has now extended considerably, being abun- dant at Buffalo, and in the adjacent part of Canada, and is also re- ported from Indiana. It is supposed to have been introduced from Europe, where it is common, but looked upon as innoxious.

In last of May and first of June of this year, the larvee were found in a clover field at Geneva, N. Y., dying in vast numbers of some parasitic fungus. Again,in October and November, they appeared in the same manner over a large lawn. At the latter date as fulla study of the fungus was made as limited time would permit. It proves to be an undescribed species of Entomophthora, and may be characterized as follows:

Entomophthora Phytonomi (n. sp.)—Mycelium abundant, branched, non-sep- tate, colorless, 9-12 in diameter, on the ventral surface of the insect growing out in form of rhizoids to act as holdfasts; hymenium over the whole surface except the head, 35-45” deep; conidiophores branched at the base, as thick as the mycelium ; spores oblong, colorless, 24-28 long by 7-10u thick. Resting spores not seen.

In the larve of Phytonomus punctatus Fabr. Geneva, N. Y., May—June and October—November, 1885.

1Riley, Amer. Nat., xv, p. 751; Rep. U. 8. *t Agric., 1881-2, p. 172; Lintn rst Ann. Rep. Insects of N. Y., p. 252. pe a 2, P. er, Fi


The habit of the larve isto feed during the night and remain concealed during the daytime, but when attacked by the fungus they crawl as high as possible before daylight, coil around the edge of the object, usually horizontally (figure 1), and do not again descend. Until ten o’clock in the morning most of them are still able to crawl about when disturbed, but are sluggish. B noon the insect dies, and the rhizoids fasten it firmly to the sup- port. Some hours afterwards the normal yellowish or pea-green color is changed to a dull gray by the appearance of the hyme- nium. The spores are produced late in the afternoon, and during the night they are discharged ; by morning only a small shriveled and blackened mass remains, while the objects beneath are powdered with the colorless and evanescent spores. the dead insect be placed on a pane of glass over night, the body will be surrounded in the morning by a halo of spores nearly two centimeters in di- ameter. When the atmosphere is damp enough during the night, the mycelium grows out over the whole body as a white pubes- cence. This is the usual course of development.

A larva dissected an hour ur two before its death shows a mass of interlacing hyphe (figure 9) among the muscles which line the outer wall of the body ; the viscera are still unaffected. The hy- phe are quite uniform in size, with finely granular contents and vacuoles of various sizes, and are extensively branched. s the mycelium grows it encroaches upon the internal organs, and eventually fills up the whole cavity of the body, except that it does not enter the alimentary tract or the trachex. The internal organs, except the two just named, together with the fluids of the body are entirely consumed by the fungus. The larva when now cut across presents a firm interior traversed by the cavity of the alimentary tract (figure 5). In some cases, however, certain bac- teria, and occasionally yeast, have become so abundant before this stage is reached that the tissues are converted into a slate- colored