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politics, Science, ^rt anb Jiteraturt




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MAY. 1899— OCTOBEB, 1899.


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A Bill of Gosre .,

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Bebhdda, The Chabms OF niiutntted Byrva NichoUon 543

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" Btbon E. Walker.. IlluMnted TAobmu R Champion. 168

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" Sir William DAWHON„IUii«trAted Frank Yeigh. 343

Hos. JoREFU MARTIH.,Illu«lr»tBd John R. Jtobimoa. 434

Cahadiah Piofle: A Critioibm Worman FatUrton. 13S

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Daibt Ihddhtbt OF Caxada Illustrated.. Q. W. Whaatim. 51

DOBOHBBTEB, Baboht OF OoiTge Johtuort. 476

Dawson, Sib William ; SuroH With Portrait Frank Yeigk. 343

Bmpibe Day W. Simford Evani 275

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Oalician Weddiro Batil C. ITEatma 83

Gbodse, Shootiho the Rdfced Rtsinaid GoKrlay. B39

Halifax, the Focndbb of Btnni J. Morgan 96

Halifax, the Attbaotiiihs of Itlnitrated E. Shtrbamt Tapper. 347

Hospital Life in a Great City Illustrated bjGoode. John MeCrae, M.D. 320

How TUB Frincb Gaptured Port Nblsoh Beckla WilUon. 210

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VASomn'U Klwsn Irving Hoffman. 17

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MAY, 1599.




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29 189



NoTB. In Ihe year i68i the Honourable Company of Merc hanls-Ad venturers trading: into Hudson's Bay decided to establisli a second factory, to be situated on Ihe weslem hide of the Bay, in the vicinity of Fort Nelson. For this purpose John Bridicar was appointed reKident Governor and despatched in the Princt f^urert, hiu arrival in those re^ons (akinif place some days subsequent to that ol two French -Canadian fur-traders, lormerly in the service of the Company, named Radisson and Groseilliers. This pair had set their hcarlH on delealing: the purpose of the Enfflish in effecMiig- a setileinent in the localily ; and probably, if Ihiry had had to deal with the Company's forces alone, might not have been compelled to resoit to quite so much labour and strategy as is related in the narrative. Bui, in addition (o the Company's ship and crew, there arriveil on the scene an unauthorized interloper named tlie Susan, hailing- from Boston, in New England. To complicate matters, the Siaan was commanded by Benja- min Ciliam, the son of the captain of the Company's ship, Kha Prince Rupert. Neither Bridg;ar, the Governor, nor Captain Gillam knew of the presence of Ihe interloper, who, by ihe laws of the period and the charter of Ihe Company, could be treated as a pirate, and her commander and crew either shot or carried in chains to England. Radisson does not recognize Ihe mon- opoly of the English Company, which i" tens suiprising when one considers that it was he and his brother-in-law who [noneered all th«ir early undertaking's. He lays claim to all the i-ounlry and trade for his master. King: Louis XIV. Not beinji;' a match for the iwo partieH of English tt^ether he resolven to capture and disarm Ihem separately. One inlerestini;: point deserves to be noted : the energy and intrepidity displayed by Ihe Frenchmen, who seem thoroug-hly at home in the wilderness, and the timidity and helplessness of th>? English servants. Indeed, had it not been for the subsequent treachery of the two brothers-in-law, in returintr to the Company's service and yielding' up their establishment to the English, the Company would probably have found it impossible to maintain themselves in this quarter of the Bay. Fort Bourbon, which was the hi );h -sounding' title Groieilliers and Radisson gave to their structure of logs, became, later, York Factory, The following narrative forms a chapter in the History of the Hudson's Bay Company which will shortly be published in two volumes.

MORE than fifteen years had elapsed more energetic policy been adopted may since Medard Chouart des Gro- be deduced from the circumstance that seilliers had first fired Prince Rupert at the time of Rupert's death the Com- with his project of founding* a great fur- pany did not possess more than a singla traffic in the unknown and unexplored fort or trading- post. It was well known regions ofthe New World. The prince that his Highness favoured greater had lived to see that project succL>ed activity, and one of his la-t acts had even beyond his most sanguine expecta- been to sign the commission of John tions. Now, at his death, the Company Bridgar as Governor of the new sei tie- owned four ships; and after all the ment at Fort Nelson. It appeared as if cost of its plant, its ships and its ex- the Adventurers had only wailed for penses had been paid, it was returning the advent of the new retfime to pursue a profit of three hundred per cent, on a more vigorous and enterprising plan its capital. The extent to which this of commerce, profit might have been increased had a Under date of April 37th,


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find the following instructions addres- sed to Henry Sargent, regarding trade with the interior: " You are to choose out from amongst our servants such as are best qualified with strength of body and the country laaguage to travel and to penetrate into the country, and to draw down the Indians by fair and gentle means to trade with us."

But the Compaay was to learn that the parsimony which then characterized its policy was not calculated to foster the success of its aims. - The majority of the men it sent out from England could not be classiiied under the head of adventurous spirits, ready to dare all for mere excitement and the prospect of gain. They were for the most part young men gifted with no more apti- tude for the work in the wilderness than a disinclination to pursue their callings at home. No small number were dissatisfied apprentices ; one William Evans had been a drawer at the Rainbow Inn ; Hr. Portman him- self had sent his scullion.

Even at that early day the staffs employed on the plantations were re- cruited from amongst the very class least competent to exploit those regi- ons. The majority of the applicants for employment in the Company's ser- vice in the seventeenth century were not men of character and vigour, or even of robust physique, but rather hare-brained artisans of the mild, dare< devil type, whose parents and friends foresaw, if London or Bristol formed the sphere of their talents, a legal and violent rather than a natural termina- tion of their respective careers.

Sargeant's response to the foregoing injunction certainly served to enlighten his superiors. " I shall not be neg- lectful," he wrote, " as soon as 1 can find any man capable and willing to send up into the country with the In- dians, to endeavour to penetrate into what the country will and may produce, and to effect their utmost in bring- ing down the Indians to our factory ; but your Honours should give good encourag'ement to those who un- dertake such extraordinary service ; or else I fear that there will be but few

that will embrace such employment."

The rebuke was just ; but it seems to have given offence to some of the more pompous members of the Com- pany ; and Sargeant was desired not to cast any further reflection on his employers in his communications to them. Nevertheless, the Company was soon to learn the value of a less nig^gBi'dly policy.

Ait the new settlement on Nelson River events were happening, which were to decide, temporarily at least, the sovereignty of that part of the Bay.

For ten days the two ex-employees, Radisson and Groseilliers gave no further evidence to the English of their presence. But on the tenth day their curiosity and uneasiness regarding the conduct of the English Governor, Bridgar, and the other servants of the Company, had reached such a pitch that it was decided without further consideration that Radisson should start off at once to reconnoitre their behaviour. The actual distance be- tween Port Bourbon, on the Hays River, and the Company's factory on Nelson River was not above fifty miles; but owing to the dangerous character of the river, and the necessity for delay before an attempt could be made to cross it, Radisson and his parly con- sumed fourteen days on the journey.

On their arrival on the 3rd of Feb- ruary one of the first objects to attract their attention was Xhx Prince Rupert, stuck fast in the ice and mud about a mile from where the factory was being erected. At the same time they met the Governor, who was out on a hunting expedition with the chief mate of the vessel. Satisfying himself that no treachery was intended Radis- son accepted Bridgar's invitation to enter the log-house which he had caused to be built for his own occu- pancy. Radisson introduced one of the Frenchmen who accompanied him as the captain of an imaginary ship, which he averred had arrived from France in his behalf. "Mr. B. believed it and anything else 1 chose to tell him," re- marks Radisson naively, " I aiming al-


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ways to prevent bim from having aoy knowledge of the English interloper." White engaged in the pleasing diver- sion of drinking each other's healths, a number of musket shots were fired. The crew of the vessel not taking any notice of this, the bushranger con* eluded that those on board were not on their guard and might readily be surprised.

With this condition uppermost in his mind, the Frenchman quitted Bridgar, having fint allayed any sus- picion which might have naturally arisen as to the intention of the party. The latter went boldly on board the ship, and no hindrance being offered their leader had a colloquy with Cap- t^n Gillam. This worthy, who while he received the visit civilly enough, yet found occasion to let Radisson know that he was far from entirely trusting him. When his visitor suggested that he was running a great risk in allowing the Prince Rupert to remain grounded, Gil lam bluntly requested Radisson to mind his own business, adding that he knew perfectly well what he was doing a boast which, as the sequel showed, was certainly not well founded. Ra- disson was determined not to be put out of temper, and so, run risk of spoil- ing his plans.

Winter, even in all its rigour, seems to have had no terrors for our indomi- table bushranger. For the next two months, as we shall relate, he continued to scour backwards and forwards through this country, inspiring his fol- lowers and urging them onward to the prosecution of a plan which was obvious to them all. Parting from Gillam the elderj who had not the faintest suspi- cion that his son was in the locality, Radisson at once started to parley with Gillam, the younger.

When he had gained the island where he had left he was instantly made aware that the New Englanders had been considerably les.s idle than the Company's servants ; having completed a very creditable fort and mounted it with six pieces of cannon. With Benjamin Gillam, our bushranger passed off the same subterfuge with

which he had hoodwinked Zachary. He spoke fluently of his newly arrived ship and her cargo and crew, and to cap his narrative proceeded to intro- duce her captain, who was none other than the old pilot, Pierre Allemand, who, from the description I have of his appearance, looked every inch the bold, fierce and uncompromising mariner. He had a great deal to tell Benjamin likewise of the Company's post near by, which he sai4 contained forty soldiers.

" Let them be forty devils," ex- claimed Gillam, junior, ** we have built a good fort and are afraid of noth- ing."

Whereupon Radisson gently remind- ed him that according to his agreement he was to have built no fort whatever. In reply to this Benjamin begged his visitor not to take umbrage at such a matter, as he never intended to dispute the rights of the French in the region, and that the fort was merely intended as a defence against the Indians.

As the evening wore on, a manoeuvre suggested itself to Radisson, He re- solved to bring father and son together. No sooner had he formed this amiable resolve than he revealed to Benjamin Gillam the proximity of the Prince Ru- pert and her commander, and described the means by which an encounter might be effected without eliciting the suspicions of Governor Bridgar or any of the Company's servants. It con- sisted briefly in young Benjamin's dis- guising himself as a Frenchman and a bushranger. The scheme met with the young man's hearty approbation and the details were settled as Radisson had designed.

On the following day the party set out through the snow. Arriving at the point on land opposite to which the Company's ship lay, Radisson posted two of his best men in the woods on the path which led to the factory. He instructed them to allow the Governor to pass should he come that way, but that if he returned from the ship unaccom- panied or prior to their own departure they were to seize and overpower him on the spot. With such precautions


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as these Radisson felt himself safe and went on board the Prince Rupert accompanied by Gillam. He introduced his two companions into the captain's Foom without any notice on the part of Gillam the elder, and the mate 'and another man he had with him. Leaning across the table, upon which was deposited a bulky bottle of rum, Radisson whispered to the honest cap- tain that he had a secret ot the highest importance to communicate if he would but dismiss the others. Gillam readily sent away the mate, but would not dis- miss his second attendant until Radis- son, again in a whisper, informed him that the black- bearded man in the strange head-gear was his son.

After communicating this intelligence the pair had their own way. The next few moments were devoted to embraces and to an interchange of news, for Captain Gillam and Benjamin had not met for two years. The sire could not refrain from imparting to his son that he was running a great risk ; he de- clared it would be ruinous to him if it got to the Governor's ears that there was any collusion between them. RacUsson again professed his friend- ship, but added that in his opinion neither of the parties had any right to be where they were, he having taken possession for the King of France. " This territory is all His Most Christian Majesty's," he said. "The fort we have built yonder we call Fort Bourbon, and none have any right here but such as own allegiance to Louis XIV." He observed that nothing would cause a rupture of the friendly relations now subsisting between French and English but that trade in peltries, trade which he had too great reason to fear they hoped to initiate with the Indians in the spring.

Thereupon the elder Gillam coolly re- sponded that the ship he commanded, and the spot on which they were then assembled, belonged not to himself, but to the Hudson's Bay Company.

" With regard to the trade, gentle- men," said he, "you have nothing to fear from me. Even though I don't carry a solitary beaver back to the

Thames, 1 shall not trouble myself, being sure of my wages."

This interview was prolonged. The healths of the Kings of France and England, Prince Rupert and M. Colbert (quite in ignorance of the deaths of the two last named) were drunk with zeal and enthusiasm. In the midst of all this, that which Radisson had antici- pated, occurred. Governor Bridgar, notified of Radisson's return, came to the ship in hot haste. On his joining the group he remarked meaningly that the I'ort the French had constructed must be nearer than he had been given to think, since its commandant could effect so speedy a return. He evinced himself very uneasy in mind concerning the Frenchman's intentions. Before their departure, young Gillam came very near being betrayed. He was partially recognized by one of the traders who accompanied the Governor. But the matter passed off withoutserious consequences.

None too soon did the party return to young Gillam's fort on the island, for a tremendous blizzard ensued, sweepingthe who[ecountry,and forcing Radisson to remain for some days with- in doors. As soon as the storm had subsided, however, Radisson started off.declining Gillam's offer of his second mate to accompany him back to the French settlement.

" I managed to dissuade him," he writes, " having my reasons for wish- ing to conceal the road we should take. On leaving we went up from the fort to the upper part of the river, but in the evening we retraced our steps and next morning found ourselves in sight of the sea into which it was necessary toenter in order to pass the point and reach the river in which was our habitation. But everything was so covered with ice that there was no apparent way of pass- ing further. We found ourselves, in- deed, so entangled in the ice that we could neither retreat nor advance to- wards the shore to make a landing. It was necessary, however, that we should pass through the ice or perish. We remained in this condition for four hours without being able to advance or


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retire and in great danger of our lives. Our cli>thes were frozen on us and we conld only move with difficulty, but at last we made so strong an attempt that we arrived at the shore, our canoe being all broken up. Each of us took our baggage and arms and marched in the direction of our habitation, without finding anything to eat for three days except crows and birds of prey, which are the last to leave these countries." Fort Bourbon was reached at length. After reporting to his brother-in-law all that had passed, Groseitliers was not long in counselling what was best lobe done. In his opinion the first thing necessary was to secure possession of young Giilam's ship. Time pressed and the spring would soon be upon them bringing with it the Indians. He argued that delay might prove fatal, inasmuch as Bridgar might at any moment learn of the presence of the New England in- terlopers ; and in that event he would probably make an effort to capture their fort and add their forces to his own. If this were done, the success of the French in overpowering the English traders would be slight and their voy- age would have been undertaken for

It was therL-fore agreed that Groseil- tiers should remain in charge of the fort, while his kinsman should im- mediately return to Nelson River. In a few days they parted once more, Radisson setting out with a fresh party and thoroughly resolved upon action. The first discovery he made, on arriving at the scene of his proposed operations, was that the Company's ship, the Prince Rupert, was frozen fast in the ice, and must inevitably perish when the spring floods came. He also speed- ily ascertained that (he Governor, by no means relishing his presence in the vicinity, was already planning measures to thwart, if not to capture, his rivals, for he had sent out two sailors charged with the task of discovering the exact whereabouts of the French and the ex- tent of their strength and equipment.

These two spies Radisson promptly captured— no difficult task indeed, for they had lost their way and were half-

frozen and almost famished. The an- ticipated fate of the Prince Rupert was not long delayed. The tidings shortly reached Radisson that she was a total wreck, and with it came also the news of the loss of her captain, the mate and four sailors. A subsequent report, how- ever, declared that Gillman had. escaped with his life.

Receiving this intelligence, Radisson presented himself before the Governor to see how he was affected by such a



He found Bridgar drinking heavily, but resolved to keep up appearances and to withhold from theFrenchany knowl- edge of what had happened. He affected to believe the ship safe, mere- ly observing that she had shifted her position a few leagues down the river. Radisson asserts that at this time the Company's factory was short of pro- visions. It is impossible (hat this could have been the case. The assertion was probably made to cover his own depredations on the stores of the Com- pany.

Parting from the Governor, Radis- son presented himself before Gillam the younger, to whom he did not as yet choose tt) say anything concerning his father and the loss of his ship. Under various pretences he induced Gillam to pay him a visit at Fort Bourbon. The latter does not seem at this time to have been aware of the intention of the French towards him. But he was soon to be undeceived.

"I remained quiet for a month," says Radisson, in the course of his extra- ordinary narrative, " treating young Gillam, my new guest, well anri with all sorts of civilities, which he abused on several occasions. For having appar- ently perceived that »e had not the strength 1 told him, he took the liberty of speaking of me in threatening terms behind my back, treating me as a pirate and saying that, in spite of me, he would trade in spring with the Indians. He had even the hardihood to strike one of my men which I pretended not to notice ; but, having the insolence later when we were dis- cussing the privileges of New England




to speak against the respect due the best of kings, 1 treated him as a worthless dog for speaking in that way and totd him that, having had the honour to eat bread in his service, I would pray to God ail my life for His Majesty. He left me, threatening that he would return to his fort and that when he was there I would not dare to speak to him as I had done. I could not expect to have a better opportunity to begin what 1 had re- solved to do. 1 lold this young brute then that I had brought him from his fort, that I would take him back myself when 1 pleased, not when he wished. He answered impertinently several times, which obliged me to threaten that I would put him in a place of safety if he was not wiser. He asked me then if he was a prisoner. I said 1 would consider it and that 1 ' would secure my trade since he had threatened to interrupt it. I then withdrew to give him time to be in- formed by the Englishmen how his father's loss was lost with the Com- pany's ship and the bad situation of Mr. Bridgar. 1 left in their company a Frenchman who understood English unknown to them. When 1 had left young Gillam urged the Englishman to fly and to go to his master and assure him that he would give him six barrels of powder and other supplies if he would undertake to deliver him out of my hands. The Englishman made no answer, but he did not inform me of the proposition that had been made him (I had learned that from the Frenchman who had learned every, thing and thought it was time to act for my security.) "

In the evening Radisson said nothing of what he knew of the plot. He asked those in his train if the muskets were in their places which he had put around to act as guarantee against surprise. At the word tnusket young Gillam, who did not know what was meant, grew alarmed and, according to Radisson, wished to fly, believing that it was intended to kill him. But his flight was arrested by his captor who took occasion to free him from

his apprehension. The next momtDg, however, the bushranger's plans were openly divulged. He told Gillam that he was about to take his fort and ship.

" He answered haughtily that even if 1 had a hundred men I could not succeed and that his people would have killed more than forty before they could reach the palisades. This bold- ness did not astonish me, being very sure that I would succeed in my de- sign."

Having secured Gillam the younger,- it was now necessary to secure the fort of which he was master. The intrepid Frenchman started for Hayes Island with nine men, and, gaining an entrance by strategy, he cast oflF the mask of friendship and boldly demand- ed the keys of the fort and the whole stock of arms and powder. He added that in the event of their refusal to yield he would raze the fort to the ground. No resistance seems to have been attempted, and Radisson took formal possession of the place in the name of the King of France. This ceremony being concluded, he ordered Jenkins, the mate, to conduct him to the ship, and here formal possession was taken in the same fashion, without any forcible objection on the part of the crew. Some explanation of this ex- traordinary complaisance, if Radisson's story ,of the number of men lie took with him be true, may be found in the commander's unpopularity, he having recently killed his supercargo in a quarrel.

Nevertheless Benjamin Gillam was not to be altogether without friends.

A certain Scotchman, perchance the first of his race in those regions, which were afterwards to be forever associ- ated with Scottish zeal and labours, wishing to show his fidelity to his chief, escaped and eluding the efforts of Radisson's fleetest bushrangers to catch him, arrived at Fort Nelson and told his tale. The Governor's astonish- ment may be imagined. He had hitherto no inkling of the presence of the New England interlopers, and although his captain and fellow-servant was not equally ignorant Gillam had


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kept his counsel well. The Governor decided at once to head a party of relief, in which he was seconded t^ Gillam p&re, who was at the moment only just recovering from an illness caused by exposure during the shipwreck. The Susan was their first point of attack. Under the cover of nig'ht they made a determined effort to recapture her for theCompany an attempt which might have succeeded bad not Radisson, suspecting the move, despatched his entire available lorce at the same time and completely overpowered the Gov- emor's men. He thought at first sight that Bridgar himself was among his prisoners, but the Governor was not to be caught in that fashion ; he had not himself boarded the ship. The Scotchman who accompanied him, however, was not so fortunate ; he fell into Radisson's hands and suffered for his zeal. He was tied to a post and informed that his execution would take placewithout ceremony on the morrow. The sentence was never carried out. Radisson, after exposing his prisoner to the cold all night in an uncomfort- able position, seems to have thought better of his threat, and after numer- ous vicissitudes the Scot at length re- gained his liberty.

Reinforcements for the French now arrived from Groseilliers. Believ- ing himself now strong enough to beard the lion in his lair, Radisson de-

cided to lose no more time in rounding off his schemes. First, however, he saw fit to address a letter to the Gov- ernor asking him if he " approved the action of the Company's people whom he held prisoners, who had broken two doors and the storeroom of his ship, io order to carry off the powder."

Bridgar's reply was that he owed no explanation to a renegade employ^ of the Company. Radisson had not been sincere in his professions, and he had dealt basely and deceitfully with him in preserving silence on the subject of the interlopers. "As I had proper in- structions," concluded Bridgar, in a more conciliatory strain, "on setting sail from London to seize all ships coming to this quarter, I would willing- ly have joined hands with you in cap- turing this vessel. ' If you wish me to regard you as sincere you will not keep this prize for your own use."

The other's response was rapid and masterly. He marched upon Fort Nelson with twelve men, and by the following nightfall was master of the English establishment. This feat near- ly drove the unhappy Governor to de- spair, and he sought solace by apply- ing himself to the rum cask with even greater assiduity. In this frame of mind John Brlgdar, the first Governor of Port Nelson was carried off a prisoner to Fort Bourbon.

To be Continued.


pOREVER in the veiled t

The land of Hope, secure from mortal eyes ; While in the new-made grave of yesterday Some dear delusion reverently we lay.

Bradford K. Daniels.

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TO a certain extent it is true that the current novel findt< its .sup- port chiefly among that class of (he public which has received no training in thi higher branches of literature. Those who have, at one time or another during a university course or a long period of private but thorough study, made an examination of the masters of ancient and modern literature and come to have some idea of the value of thought and of style, And their greatest pleasure in the older novelists or in the great historians and essayists.

An illustration of this was provided for me recently. Six men of education and culture were taking dinner in a private room in a city restaurant. The conversation turned on to the current novel and its value. Finally, some one suggested that each person write the □ames of his five favourite English authors on a slip of paper and hand It to one of the men for examina- tion. The Bible and Shakespeare were barred. When the result was summed up the vote stood as follows : Scott, 4 votes; Carlyle, Dickens and Kipling, 3 each ; Macaulay, Parkman, Thackeray and Ruskin, 2 each ; Eliot, Pope, Leckie, Stevenson, Browning, Tenny- son. Goldsmith and Arnold one each. There were thirty votes cast, and six- teen authors mentioned.

There are several thousand new books printed each year in the L nglish language which may be expected to be of interest to the general reader. Here was a body of six men with a full knowledge of all the more important of the books published during the last five years, who calmly stated that none of the current books except those of Kipling and Stevenson have proved themselves worthy of their admiration. No mention was made of Anthony


Hope, Marion Crawford, Gilbert Par- ker, Robert Barr, Richard Harding Davis, Frank R. Stockton, Justin McCarthy, J. M. Barrie, Hall Caine, William Black, Mrs. Humphrey Ward, Francis Hodgson Burnett, James Lane Allen, Harold Frederic, Conan Doyle, Stanley J. Weyman, Thomas Hardy, George Du Maurier, William Dean Howells, or the score of other familiar names of the last few years only Kipling and Stevenson. Yet of all these persons who were ignored by these six self- appointed critics, most have at one time or another shown signs of genius. Why should these cri- tics treat them only as favourites for an hour?

Perhaps an explanation may be found in the character of the men themselves. The educated Canadian is conservative. Before acknowledging anything to be pure gold, he must have seen it tried in the Are. He prefers the book which has weathered the criticisms of half a cen- tury to that which is new and untested. Yet this rule applied absolutely would have barred Kipling and Stevenson, for they are modern

Another explanation may be offered. The modern publisher publishes a cer> tain Dumber of books each year, the number determined by his capital and the means of sale at his disposal. When a