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NOTICE: According to Sec. 19 (a) of the University Statutes, all books and other library materials acquired in any man- ner by the University belong to "he University Library. When this item is no longer needed bv the department, it should be returned to the Acquisition Department, University Library.

Public Information

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in 2012 with funding from

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

http://archive.org/details/illio1967univ

In this Centennial year, the ILLIO focuses on the germinal beginnings and sketches briefly the development of a modern university complex- the University of Illinois. Particular stress is lent to the administration of John Milton Gregory. His purposes for education at an industrial university and his tenacity in implementing them were crucial for our tradition of university education.

During these hundred years, other traditions of student government, athletics, Greek - letter organizations, honoraries, student publications have arisen. The development of some student activities is traced in the historical section.

Divided into two parts, the ILLIO contrasts the University's past with her present. Yet those of the present students, professors, administration, alumni should not think themselves wholly divorced from the past. Evident today are Gregory's contributions and the work of those who followed him in the service of the University.

In our reflection on the University of Illinois in 1967, Gregory's epitaph reminds us of our debt to past generations:

'If you seek his monument, look about you."

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editor

R. DEAN CONLIN

business manager

JOHN BRYANT

associate editors

JOHN L. LOGAN MARGO A. MILLER BARBARA D. SUSIN

associate business manager

BONNIE KOHLENBERGER

graphics

ROBERTA DIMMER LINDA DUNLOP

centennial

early history

participation

competition

alumni

contents

student life learning

activities residences sports organizations

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Completing his education at Yale, Jonathan B. Turner came to Jacksonville's Illinois College to teach Greek.

Education Reflects Increasing Democracy in American Life

To briefly trace the rise of a modern American university— the University of Illinois— a singu- lar development must first be noted. This de- velopment is the mid-nineteenth century move- ment for industrial education. The agitation for, and the first growth of industrial education occurred before the birth of the modern univer- sity. In Illinois this movement for industrial education directly led to the establishment of a true university.

In the increasing democratization of American life coming out of the Jacksonian era, the de- velopment of the movement for industrial edu- cation can be seen. Though eastern labor had demanded equal educational opportunity for many years, this demand in the Midwest was later and slower in growth. In Illinois industrial education meant primarily agricultural educa- tion. And accordingly, it was an agriculturalist who first made known a plan for industrial edu- cation. This agriculturist was . Jonathan Baldwin Turner.

Unless otherwise credited, all photographs in the his- torical section are from the University Archives.

Tradition of Federal Aid to Education Is Long-Standing

In Illinois in the 1850's, there were twelve colleges. All were private and several were women's seminaries. With few exceptions these colleges were little more than resident high schools.

Although the federal government had given educational aid, Illinois was without a tradition of public aid to higher education. The Ordinance of 1787 stated that "since education was neces- sary to good government and to the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education should be forever encouraged." Land acts fol- lowing this ordinance gave states tracts of land to be sold for educational purposes. The money was appropriated under two categories— the seminary fund and the college fund. The semi- nary fund was endowed by selling two town- ships; the college fund accrued by the levy of a three percent tax on state lands. Forced to use these funds for common expenses, the Illinois Legislature utilized only the interest for educa- tional purposes. It remained for another effort to bring effective public aid to Illinois higher education.

Though there were feeble attempts by the Illinois Legislature to give educational aid, noth- ing resulted. The legislature did, in 1852, grant a charter to a small Lutheran college at Millsboro to relocate at Springfield. This charter, however, placed no responsibility on the state to support this new Illinois State University since it was a private college.

Champaign's Main Street in 1868 appears prosperous.

Located north of the present Men's Old Gymnasium, the first building contained classrooms, chapel, club rooms,

and dormitories for the seventy-seven students who en- tered in 1868. Rooms cost four dollars a semester.

Jonathan Baldwin Turner Presents Plan at Granville

It was at Granville on November 18, 1851 that Turner first presented his idea for industrial education. In his speech at Granville, he stated that the representatives of the industrial classes wanted the same privileges and advantages for themselves and their posterity as professional men enjoyed. He went on to state that since existing colleges were originally and primarily intended for the professional classes they could not serve the industrial classes. Therefore, Turn- er said, the industrial classes should immediately establish a university to serve their own needs. His objectives for the university would be to apply existing knowledge to all practical pursuits and professions in life.

Turner's plan was greeted enthusiastically at Granville and generally throughout the state. After reconciling the few major objectors to it,

there was hope for immediate acceptance in the Illinois Legislature. In the interim, however, Turner had proposed a modification of his plan. In the PRAIRIE FARMER of March, 1852, Turner suggested that a federal land grant be given to each state for "a system of popular Industrial Education." This was not an original idea of Turner's.

It remained for United States Representative Justin S. Morrill to introduce a bill in Congress calling for a federal land grant to aid state universities. After passing both houses, the bill was vetoed by President Buchanan. In 1862, despite the Civil War, bills were presented in the Senate by Benjamin Wade of Ohio and in the House by Morrill. The Wade version passed in both houses and was signed into law by President Lincoln on July 2, 1862.

Educated at Union College, John M. Gregory moved to Michigan. In 1864 became regent of Kalamazoo College.

inois Legislature's Law Precipitates Argument

When the Illinois Legislature unanimously accepted the land grant in January, 1863, two issues remained for resolution. The issues were whether there should be one or several institu- tions to use the land grant and, after it had been determined that there would be only one, where this school would be located. Curiously, the Industrial League which had done so much in generating publicity for the grant had no specific plan to implement it, though it quickly

formed one.

The arguments to divide the land grant among the existing colleges represented the bid of the small, denominational colleges to receive the benefits of the Morrill Act. One Illinois college, for instance, proposed to establish a "professor- ship of the green earth." To oppose the existing colleges which wanted to divide the agricultural and mechanical grant, a group arose demanding that a separate university be established.

After a rancorous and vituperative contest between forces representing divergent plans to implement the grant from the national govern- meni Governor Oglesby on February 28, 18(17, signed into Law the bill establishing the Illinois [ndustrial University. 10

Passage of I.I.U. Bill

Brings Questions to the Fore

After the bill establishing the Illinois Indus- trial University was signed into law, the question of what this University would teach came to the fore. This question, however, had always been present. John A. Kennicott, for example, at the third convention called to discuss in- dustrial education, scored Turner's suggestion to introduce a classical course. He stated that "we must keep to the necessary and practically useful branches of education." He also felt that men should "leave mere learning and conven- tional usage, to the old system, and to the old schools where all such stuff properly belongs." If strong men had not resisted this anti-intellec- tual strain, the Illinois Industrial University could have become merely a trade school.

A man representative of those who resisted attempts to drive intellectuality from the In- dustrial Education movement was Willard Cut- ting Flagg. Having graduated from Yale where he excelled as a writer, Flagg returned to his father's farm. While managing this farm, he became an active experimenter. Always partici- pating in agricultural groups and in their dis- cussion on industrial education and its implica- tions for Illinois, Flagg in 1863 felt the need to set down his thoughts on industrial education. In A SHORT PAMPHLET Flagg stated that agriculture was "a calling from which the weakest intellect and least practical shrewdness can de- rive a support, but that it furnishes scope for the widest range of human skill and knowledge."

Gregory's Plan of Study

One of the first and most important issues facing John Milton Gregory when he took office was planning a course of study. Although a committee was appointed for this purpose, the final report was almost exclusively Dr. Gregory's.

Gregory's plan was to have six departments, with fifteen courses and professorships. The de- partments were agriculture, engineering, military science, chemistry and natural science, trade and commerce, and general science and litera- ture.

Gregory Comes to a Poorly-endowed, One-building College

Not only did Gregory have to carefully budget the institution's funds, but also had to answer, appease, and silence virulent attackers. Jonathan Periam, who was head farmer at the University, well represents the arguments against Gregory in "The Classics and Agriculture" of his book THE GROUNDSWELL. He states that while it was not expected that Industrial Colleges could immediately accomplish the end sought, it was certainly not foreseen that they would adopt the curriculum of the average literary college. Periam felt that they adopted this cur- riculum with "simply enough varnish of ag- riculture and mechanics to enable them to annex the endowment of the nation and of the States where situated."

The key words that Periam uses, of course, are "the end sought." In Periam 's, and in his followers' opinion, the end sought was an in- stitution stressing low utilitarianism. With this in mind, it is understandable for Periam to charge these universities like 1. 1. XL, which gave high utilitarian instruction, with a "gross per- version of the endowment granted by Congress for a very different purpose."

One of the trustees, M. L. Dunlap, who was reputable in state agricultural circles, sought to implement his idea that practical men should staff a university with modest admission re- quirements and have a curriculum much like a

trade school's. His university would turn out good farmers and mechanics.

These men were reacting against the sterility and the irrelevance of existing colleges in their stress on the classics and on religious purpose. This reaction was nation-wide.

Although Charles W. Eliot, president of Har- vard from 1869 to 1909, is generally called the architect of the modern university, Regent Greg- ory was at least a member of the architectural firm. Eliot, serving as president for forty years, saw many more of his plans reach fruition than did Gregory during his thirteen year tenure. In some respects Gregory's initial task was more difficult than Eliot's. Eliot was able to begin his work of transformation with a well-established, well-endowed institution that needed only reno- vation. On the other hand, Gregory's work began with a poorly-endowed, one-building institution.

That the University was richly endowed by the Morrill Act's terms is false. The act stated that thirty thousand acres of land at $1.25 per acre would be donated to each state and terri- tory for each Congressman. For Illinois that amounted to 180,000 acres. The land, however, was located in Nebraska and Minnesota and was difficult to sell. Further complicating sound fiscal management was the default of some of the bonds which Champaign County had promised in order to attract the University.

The Drill Hall Machine Shop was completed in 1872.

An 1874 photograph shows the "Elephant" and the Dnl Hall. Fences were needed to keep stray cattle off the campus.

EXERCISES

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12

Gregory Introduces Student Government, Elective System

The legacy of Gregory at Illinois reaches into all aspects of University life, but especially at the level of student rights. Gregory advocated measures such as the elective system and student government. He brought forward these innova- tions when most of the colleges in the nation closely followed the English model of education in severely regulating the life of the student. This regulation extended beyond the classroom and was needed, thought its proponents, to insure proper moral instruction. The curriculum was rigid. Typically, the student marched lockstep through four years of prescribed work. Gregory sought to change the system, while still working within it, to give students training which would be valuable in their later years.

Gregory effected these changes while strug- gling with financial and administrative problems and while he was constantly under attack by those feeling that a university should stress low rather than high utilitarianism.

These innovations were not successful. The elective system broke down soon after its intro- duction. This collapse was partly due to criticism charging that by offering electives college offi- cials were attempting to lure students away from agriculture. The main reason, however, was that the students were not mature enough intellec- tually to decide what they should profitably pur- sue. The intellectual immaturity of these early

students is shown by the fact that one third of the enrollment in 1871 was committed to the sub-collegiate preparatory courses. Even when these students had progressed enough to take the regular university courses, they were not quali- fied to choose the ones they should take. After its fourth year of existence, the elective system was replaced by a less flexible one. The students could now only choose which of the thirteen se- quences they wanted to follow.

In 1870 Regent Gregory offered the men in the dormitories their own government. He made this offer since by then more than half of the students were living in private housing. Parties emerged and campus politics were lively. Gregory's plan was only partially successful. The elections on campus turned into brawls, and the students soon lost their respect for student government.

When the new University Hall was finished, there were large rooms on the top floor for stu- dent activity. Regent Gregory was responsible for them. These facilities brought the literary so- cieties, which students formed five days after the University's opening, to full activity.

Though Gregory's plan for student govern- ment was only partly successful and his elective system was a dismal failure, his work in these two areas was ahead of its time. Under different conditions these plans blossomed and became fundamental to American colleges.

Opened in 1873, the Art Gallery displayed plaster rep- licas of famous works. Regent Gregory purchased them

while he was in Europe. Since much of the statuary was broken in transit, young Lorado Taft repaired them.

Thomas J. Burrill, acting regent in 1891-1894, lifted the fraternity ban and abolished compulsory military drill.

Burrill's botany classes were using microscopes in 1869.

I.I.U. Is Early Burdene Two Systems

By 1873 all of the promised departments, which were included in Gregory's report, were functional. This was vindication of Gregory's so hotly debated plan of studies. A turning point had come in 1870 when a convention in Bloom- ington appointed a committee to report on the condition of I.I.U. This report was favorable, marking the beginning of general acquiescence to the aims of the University as conceived by Gregory.

At the outset the University was burdened by two systems which hindered rapid academic growth. These were the systems of manual labor and of sub-collegiate training. By Gregory's plan students were to spend two early afternoons in labor. Criticisms caused the system to become voluntary and later to be abolished completely. The need for sub-collegiate training for many of the students who arrived with inadequate aca- demic training produced the "Academy." Most of the instructors had to teach some of these courses. And in the early 1870' s, one third of the enroll- ment was required to take preparatory courses. In 1872 entrance requirements were raised to elevate the level of University work. As a fur- ther step, the Illinois high schools were accred- ited so that their students would not have to take the entrance examinations. And by 1876 students pursuing a sub-collegiate program were sepa- rated and were taught by recent graduates. The "Academv" was not dropped until 1897.

Civil engineering was one of the most popular depart- ments of a college, enrolling 42 percent of all students by 1887. Here derbied engineers are surveying.

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The metal shops wore to produce equipment for the University as well as to instruct students in metalworking.

Gregory Faces Strong Opposition from Low Utilitarians

Regent Gregory's antagonists like Jonathan Periam and John A. Kennicott were reacting against the sterility and irrelevance of the old time college. In denouncing these colleges, they were throwing out everything. Greek and Latin were the particular objects of their purge. Be- cause of a strong strain of anti-intellectualism, coining in part out of the Romantic Age, these men wanted to implement low utilitarianism.

The real problem lay not so much with the subjects taught, but with the way they were taught. Because the recitation method was used, the student was given an assignment to be mem- orized. The next class period that student was called upon to recite the complete lesson. The students were entirely passive in the educational processes. Willard C. Flagg well represents those who lent support to Gregory and who objected not as much to the subjects as to the method.

Flagg advocated an active rather than passive role. I le wanted students participating in learn- ing rather than just observing. Even though he stressed practical education, he did not strip away intellectuality.

Even after Gregory triumphed in getting his plan of study accepted, the question of how to provide a type of laboratory instruction yet re- mained. Gregory felt that a system of manual labor was a solution ; but his thinking was behind that of the best, representing the older notions drawn from Pestalozzi. The compulsory manual labor system was soon to prove a failure.

Only in one area, Professor Ricker's architec- tural shop and Professor Robinson's machine shop, was this labor system a partial success. Even after the labor system went out, these shops continued to grow. Here engineering stu- dents were able to learn first hand of problems encountered in tool and machine design.

These shops were a transition from the labor system to the laboratory method. And the tran- sition was short at the University because of the work of Thomas Burrill. In 1869 he first used the microscope in teaching botany by the laboratory method. He soon used the same method to teach entomology and non-medical bacteriology.

15

German Scholarship Exerts Great Influence at University

Though the fate of the humanities and agri- culture at the University appeared uncertain with the rapid rise of engineering, a number of factors contributed to stabilize and increase their influence. In the humanities the greatest impact was that of German scholarship. This great force in revising American higher education was of inestimable value. In agriculture two federal acts_the Hatch Act and the second Morrill Act— provided the needed funds to finance the present course and to enlarge the scope of the agriculture program.

The Hatch Act of 1887 provided $15,000 an- nually for the maintenance of an experiment sta- tion. In 1890 the second Morrill Act doubled this endowment, providing funds for instruction in agriculture, engineering, and auxiliary sub- jects. Though the act aided agriculture, it also had other far-reaching results.

In the text of the bill, the maker stated that the funds also be used for auxiliary subjects, therefore implying that land grant colleges, cur- riculums should not be narrowly based. The other important result was that since the aug- mented income from the endowment almost cov- ered faculty salaries, Regent Peabody feared that the legislature might withdraw its support. Peabody therefore used the new fund to expand the faculty. In the next year and a half, new professors of chemistry, mining engineering, French, Greek, and pedagogy and psychology were added, as were instructors in gymnastics, rhetoric and philosophy.

National Education Changes

At a time when the University was expanding physically and also increasing the number of courses offered, a rapid change was taking place in national higher education. This change was the proliferation of research and specialization, will) their concomitants of organization and pub- lication. There were many factors which quick- ened this change l he work of immigrant schol-

16

ars, the growth of national learned societies, and adequate financial resources.

The rise of specialization signaled a basic change in the intellectual ideals of American higher education. Though this change had taken place sometime in the mid-nineteenth century, its pace kept quickening during the last half cen- tury. Prior to 1850 the ideal of higher education had been to acquire and transmit the greatest possible amount of knowledge. After mid-century the ideal came more to be the discovery of new truth through original investigation.

The single greatest impact causing the shift in emphasis was that of German scholarship. During the nineteenth century an increasing number of American students journeyed to Ger- many to study. And between the War of 1812 and World War I, 10,000 American students attended German universities.

Scholars at Illinois were among those whc studied at German universities. Arthur W. Pal- mer, '83, who helped to direct the chemistry de- partment to its modern role, had studied a1 Gottingen and Berlin. George W. Myers, '88 held a doctorate in mathematics from Municl and taught at the University of Illinois.

Under the influence of specialization, manj disciplines took their modern form. History, fo example, had experienced little forward develop ment at the University from 1868 to 1894. Bu with the arrival of E. B. Greene in 1894, this de partment was reorganized, offering courses oi the Reformation, the Puritan Revolution, an< the French Revolution. C. W. Alvord's life- he came to the University in 1897— well illus- trates the activities of the men who transforme< the history department.

In 1905 Alvord discovered in two Souther Illinois courthouses stores of documents datin back to Illinois' French colonial period. Alvon published many of these documents in the COI LECTIONS of the Illinois State Historical L brary. Active in the Mississippi Valley Historic; Society, he began the MISSISSIPPI VALLF/ HISTORICAL REVIEW in 1914. Alvord, thei who specialized, conducted research, partic pated in learned professional societies, and pul lished books and articles, was one of the me who were active in reconstructing discipline and departments, and in transforming colleg into true universities.

Experiment Stations Provide Research Advancement

During the Last quarter of the nineteenth cen- tury, the increase in research was rapid. Funda- mental to research is adequate financial backing; and at the University major strides towards funding research were made with the forma- tion of the Agricultural Experiment Station, the Engineering Experiment Station, and the Graduate College.

From the beginning of the University, Pro- fessor Robinson had conducted successful engi- neering laboratory courses. Acting as a catalyst in instituting further laboratory instruction, Arthur Newell Talbot's hydraulics laboratory was opened in 1893. In the 1890's new cur- riculums were added in architectural, electri- cal, and municipal and sanitary engineering. These new courses were reflections of the in- creasing specialization.

The Engineering Experiment Station greatly stimulated research after its founding in 1903, although there was research before its existence. Some of its developments soon after 1903 were the accoustical studies of F. R. Watson, the development of photoelectrical cells by Jacob Kung, and the perfection of alkalic vapor tubes by C. T. Knipp.

At the outset, professional societies and state laboratories co-operated with the Experiment Station. Soon industry gave support to research. Experiments with coal, for example, were fi- nanced in part by the Illinois Gas Association. The First World War greatly accelerated co- operative research. The Engineering Foundation and the National Research Council, for instance, sponsored research investigating materials used in airplane and ship construction.

After the funds provided by the Hatch Act of 1887 became available, the Agricultural Experi- ment Station was formed. In 1888 the Station sent out its first BULLETIN. By 1894 Dean Davenport found that the Station was engaged in over 150 experiments and had issued over t hirty-three BULLETINS in its first seven years. And there was a demand for more experimenta- tion. Accordingly, in 1902, in conjunction with the Bureau of Soils of the Department of Agri-

Agriculture professors held short-courses in corn judging.

culture, the Station made soil surveys. Also in 1902 co-operative investigations were made with individual farmers.

The Station's research was reaching out more and more to the Illinois farmer. The college's staff often prepared exhibits for stock shows. Short courses and conferences came into greater use after 1900. At a series of mid-winter con- ferences in 1903, 100 people attended the horti- culturists' conference, 250 attended the corn- growers' conference, and 250 attended the house- keepers' convention. Thus an extension program gave to the farmer and to agricultural industry the benefits of research.

This railroad car carried home economics demonstrations to all parts of the state.

Graduate School Reorganizes

In 1904 the liberal arts departments were concerned about the imbalance between the humanities, and engineering and agriculture. Following the inauguration of President Edmund Janes James, the Graduate School was reorgan- ized to correct this imbalance and to emphasize research and better teaching. Only those de- partments whose staffs were considered capable were allowed to offer the masters and doctors degrees. The Illinois Legislature, in 1907, ap- propriated five thousand dollars a year for the establishment of fellowships and scholar- ships, and for the equipping of research lab- oratories.

James recruited some of the best scholars available. Among the additions were Gustav Karsten, founder of the JOURNAL OF ENG- LISH AND GERMANIC PHILOLOGY; Wil- liam Albert Noyes, chief chemist of the Bureau of Standards; and Stuart Pratt Sherman, lit- erary critic.

With the advent of the Engineering Experimenl Station, many besting machines such as this one were used.

Edmund J. James, president from 1904 to L920, wafl distinguished scholar in welfare economics.

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The main building was wrecked by a wind storm in 1880.

Completed in 1873, University Hall had large rooms on the V-hanging l"aC6 Ol CaPipUS

t op floor for student activities. Gregory had seen to this.

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Harker Hall, built in 1878, was originally Chemistry Hall.

Looking north onto the campus in the L890's shows tha though Champaign was growing, fences were still needed

20

Under Draper, Campus Becomes Golf Course

In 1868 the campus contained one building, "the Elephant/' which was located on the pres- ent baseball diamond. The demands of the Uni- versity soon prompted construction of Univer- sity Hall and the Drill Hall on higher ground south of the Boneyard. Thus University Hall, which was on the site of the present Illini Union, was on the extreme southern part of the "old campus."

Late in 1891 concrete walks began to replace the board walks and gravel paths, and electri- fication was begun the next year. In 1892 the cornerstone was laid for the Natural History Building, and Engineering Hall was completed in 1894. Although Engineering Hall was only the fifth major structure built, by 1904 there were fifteen major structures, most of which were built south of Green Street.

A motley array of buildings composed the campus in the early twentieth century. The va- riety ranged from the Romanesque style of the Library to the undefinable construction of En- gineering Hall to the Colonial beauty of the Woman's Building (now the English Building). But some of these buildings became part of a quadrangular plan when the Woman's Building was placed across from the agriculture building. After his inauguration President Draper (1894 to 1904) appointed a superintendent of grounds. Soon fences were taken down and the twin cities were encouraged to pave the streets in the cam- pus area.

President Draper's efforts seem to have con- verted the campus into a country club, for in 1898 a faculty golf club was organized with the course being the campus itself. The course be- gan on the quadrangle, doglegged past the Ob- servatory, offered some challenging rough in the cornfields and cemetery, and returned back to the ninth hole— the site of Noyes Laboratory.

tie clock presented by the class of 1878 was moved '.in University Hull to the cupola of the Illini Union.

21

This photograph shows the campus in

1911.

First built as a library, Altgeld Hall then housed the Law College. Now it is used by the Mathematics Department.

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Altgeld Hall was completed in 1896.

World War I Allows Time for Campus Planning

A planning commission was appointed in 1909 in anticipation of a million dollar building pro- gram. Even though the full amount was never appropriated, the planning commission went ahead with its work. The body could not, how- ever, come up with a master plan for the campus. It later agreed that the north-south axis should run through the Auditorium. The farms and ag- ricultural plots were to be located south of the Auditorium, and the military and athletic facil- ities were to expand in the newly acquired land to the west.

The First World War stopped building and allowed a fortunate pause in planning. Guiding the University's campus growth after the war was architect Charles A. Piatt. His basic plan for the campus was similar to that adopted be- fore the war. Piatt, however, did make one no- ticeable decision— to use the American Georgian style of architecture for Mumford Hall, David Kinley Hall, and other buildings.

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For many years Hallway House stood on Green Street in front of University Hall.

23

President Draper renamed the beautiful Boneyard "Silver Creek."

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im, Mead, and White designed the English Building.

Feverish building in 1946 provided housing for returning veterans and their families at Stadium Terrace.

The Broadwalk in 1932 was a beautiful addition to the campus with its stately elms forming an archway.

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Early students often inspected the zoological collections.

Well-dressed students attend an 1884 field day.

This May Fete, which was held in 1908, is typical of the elaborate productions held by the women students.

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Early rooming houses had the atmosphere of a true home.

Students Form Literary Societies Early at l.l.U.

Student life in 1868 consisted of camaraderie and little else. During the first years, all stu- dents lived on the two upper floors of the main building, nicknamed "the Elephant." To heat the living quarters, each student had to bring a small stove, which was sometimes used for cooking. Organized into semi-military order, students were marched to and from compulsory chapel and classes. Students also had to spend two hours a day in manual labor.

Five days after the opening of the University, male students formed two literary societies the Adelphic and the Philomathean. A year later the women students formed a society of their own— the Alethanae Society. Gregory's foresight in providing club rooms on the top floor of Univer- sity Hall brought these ventures into full activ- ity. These societies did much to lessen the austerity of early student life.

29

Glenn M. Hobbs sets a pole vault record in Field Day action at the Fairgrounds.

30

Foster North Revolts Against Compulsory Chape

The Peabody administration (1880-1891) was plagued by student unrest, which was the result of a dilemma facing students. Unable to govern themselves, the students had to submit to regu- lation by a faculty who showed little imagina- tion. The student government had folded in June, 1883, after a student vote showed that it would no longer support it. And in 1884 the faculty instituted a demerit system.

The frequency of demerits given for missing- chapel and military drill indicated student dis- like for them. In 1885 compulsory chapel was the cause of the Foster North revolt. North, a senior, decided that the University could not compel his attendance at chapel. After the Uni- versity trustees concurred with the suspension, North carried his case all the way to the Illinois Supreme Court, only to lose every decision.

The participants as well as the spectators wore derbies to the tug-of-war contests, often held across the Boneyard.

Since early professors considered them too weak to with- stand the rigors of study, women took corrective measures.

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This mob scene is a "sack rush", held in the late 1890's. The freshman party gave rise to the first "rush" in 1891.

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Class Enthusiasm Produces Memorials, Parties, Brawls

The activity of the literary societies was super- ceded by that of the classes. Evident today are the clock, fountain, and other memorials which the classes presented. Each class had its caps, colors, mottoes, and yells, capturing its rowdy spirit. Class parties, which were held during the 1890's, seem to have deliberately invited crash- ing by rival classes.

An outgrowth of the class enthusiasm was the "rush." The first one was held in 1891 when the freshmen wore class ribbons in violation of a sophomore proclamation. The ensuing battle was termed a "rush." Thomas Arkle Clark, who was later Dean of Men, first tried to substitute a supervised greased-pole "rush" and later a push- ball contest, conducted with a ball from Drake University. More students were hurt in this way than in all of the other "rushes" combined. A "sack rush" was then held, and a cap burning- was soon introduced. In 1915 a maturing stu- dent body voted to stop all "rushes."

Pushball contests were substituted for the "class rushes."

This "color rush" was held in 1908.

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After 1891 fraternities came on campus and purchased houses.

Commencement took its modern form after 1897.

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Cadet troops have always been a part of the University.

President Taft reviewed the student brigade in 1911.

Greeks, Dancing Banned

Though Delta Tau Delta appeared on campus in 1872, it was banned four years later by the trustees. Sigma Chi managed to exist by assum- ing the name "Tautological Tautogs." In 1891, however, Acting-regent Thomas Burrill no long- er required the students to sign the anti-frater- nity pledge cards.

Though they experienced slow growth in the 1890's, fraternities tripled in number between 1900 and 1905. At first these organizations rented rooms in downtown Champaign, but soon they began to rent houses with dormitory space. After 1910 many large houses were built.

Social dancing and fraternities grew together and J were inseparable. Both were thought by some to be destructive of student morals. And after an attempt to "stop all ragging and un- natural movements such as wiggling the shoul- ders, swaying the hips, pumping the arms, flop- ping the elbows, skipping, hopping, galloping, and low fantastic dips," dancing was temporarily banned from the campus in 1916.

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Twilight concerts have been popular since their start in 1911.

I.I.U. Band Forms in 1868

In 1868, before students had come to the spring mud of Urbana, the military department committee had decided that there would be a band. If drums can be called one, then there was a band in the fall of 1868. Soon, however, an E-flat cornet, a fife, and a tuba were added. In these early years the band was limited to fifteen so that too many would not use playing as an excuse for missing military drill. These early bands, dressed in uniforms similar to the mil- itary, played for oratorical and athletic contests and even traveled to other cities.

The band developed rapidly after it came un- der the direction of Albert Austin Harding in 1906. Within a decade there were 160 members in the band. During these years the modern Marching Illini took form, first singing in 1920.

Under Harding's direction the band was called in 1930 "the world's greatest college band." A tribute to the band's excellence came with the death of John Philip Sousa, who gave his musi- cal library to the University.

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The band in 1909 formed the first marching block I.

A "hobo band" parade was a main attraction at the first Illinois Homecoming. The parade above was held in 1913.

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"Gymkana" developed the gymnastic side of the ol run-. 'This trio appeared in a L9 10 performance.

Activity Is More Mature

In spite of the class-inspired, rowdy enthusi- asm, there were organizations developing which had more serious purposes and more mature out- looks. The Young Men's and Women's Christan- Associations and the literary and journalistic groups were among these.

The YMCA, organized in the 1870's, and the YWCA, organized in the 1880's, were the dom- inant religious and social influence on campus prior to 1900. Their Sunday School classes were well attended and their missionary movement popular.

Charitable projects were undertaken. The YWCA Christinas Doll Show arose out of a re- quest by the West-Side Association of Chicago for dolls. Money was raised for missionary work in 1902 by staging a Post-Exam Jubilee.

The Y's activities were first carried out in the "Association House" at Wright and John. In 1908 the YMCA constructed the building now known as Iilini Hall, and the YWCA soon built McKinley Hall. Though they had more room, the Y's never recovered the vitality they had once enjoyed.

The ILLINI grew from a small fortnightly magazine to a weekly newspaper in 1893, and then to a daily in 1907 when its name was changed to the DAILY ILLINI. The introduc- tion of journalism in 1904 helped to stimulate better writing for the paper. A measure to stop staffs from keeping profits of advertising in both the DAILY ILLINI and the ILLIO brought both publications under the supervision of the non-profit Iilini Publishing Company.

The class of 1895 issued the last SOPHO- GRAPH, a literary